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Environmental Science

Submitted by demo-user on Thu, 05/31/2018 - 16:19

Details Of Syllabus – Course Description

Year ONE Semester ONE

ENVS 151    General Biology I    (2, 3, 3)
The scientific study of life; Principles of cellular life; the chemical basis of life. Cell structure and function. Cell membranes. Energy – acquiring pathways, energy releasing pathways. Cellular reproduction and genetics; the cellular basis of reproduction and inheritance. Observable patterns of inheritance; DNA structure and function. The control of gene expression. Concepts of evolution; emergence of evolutionary thought, microevolution, speciation tracing and history. The evolution of biological diversity; the origin and evolution of life. Plants, fungi and colonization of land. The evolution of animal diversity. Human evolution. 

CHEM  157    General Chemistry I     (2, 3, 3)
Periodic table and periodicity. Chemical bonding: ionic bond, covalent, dative (coordinate) bond, hybridization, multiple bonds, shapes of molecules. Forces within molecules, bond strength, bond energy, polarity, continuity of bonds and intermolecular forces. Organic reactions: bond formation and fission, classification of reagents and reactions, reaction intermediates. Hydrocarbon (aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic) compounds, including polycyclic systems. Structure and nomenclature, homologous series; preparations and reactions.

GEOG 151    Introduction to Physical & Environmental Systems    (2, 0, 2)
Physical environmental systems with reference to influencing agents and processes. Components of physical environmental systems, development of geomorphic thought, rock types, structure of the atmosphere, climatic elements and climatic controls, soil forming processes, major soil groups of Ghana, the ecosystem.

CSM 183    Introduction to Computers I    (2, 3, 3)
Introduction to computers and computing, processing device, input/output devices, application software. Introduction to Windows: the basics, working with windows, file management in Windows XP, managing files with the computer, using the online help and support, introduction to the internet. Introduction to Word document, formatting, creating tables and indexes, formatting tables, inserting objects, merging documents and sorting data-processing.

MATH 161    Introductory Pure Mathematics 1 (3, 0, 3)
The  applied to not more than two statements at aÛ, Ü, Þ,Ú, Ùnotations ~,  , Set theory – Basicºtime: equivalence statements.  The notation  Operations on Sets; Venn diagrams.  The set R of real numbers.  Relation of  order in R.  Irrational numbers (surds).  Binary Operations on sets.  Indices and logarithms.  Graphical and mapping; Defining a function, Linear, Quadratic and other Polynominal functions, Graphical representation of functions.  Partial fractions, Inequalities in one/two variables.  Sequence and Series (intuitive treatment of limits).  Permutation and Combinations.  The Binomial Theorem; the Binomial series.  Circular measure.  Trignometric functions.  Addition and double-angle formulae.  Matrices and Determinants.  Principles of Mathematical Induction, Complex numbers. 

ENGL 157    Communication Skills I    (2, 0, 2)
An introduction to parts of speech: nouns and pronouns, verbs, voice and tense, adjectives and adverbs, conjugations, prepositions and interjections. Concord, the article, direct and indirect speech, the sentence, punctuation and paragraphing.

FC 181    French for Communication Purposes I    (2, 0, 2)
Aspect Grammatical: La definition et genre d’un objet; l’identité d’une personne; Les jours de la semaine; Lesmois de l’année; Les chiffresde zero à cent. La conjugasion: Le present de l’indicatif des verbes reguliers et irreguliers. Interrogation avec les suivants: Est-ce-que; Par inversion, Par intonation. L’adjectif: possessif; demonstrative. L’heure et le temps; Localisation; L’emploi de; Le pluriel de noms et d’adjectives. L’aspect communicative: faire connaissance/rencontre quelqu’un. Civilisation; La culture francaise.

Year ONE Semester TWO

ENVS 152    General Biology II    (2, 3, 3)
Plants: forms and function. Plant structure, reproduction and development; Plant nutrition and transport. Control systems in plants. Animals – forms and function. Tissues, organ systems and homeostasis. Nutrition and digestion, respiration, circulation, immunity, control of the internal environment. Principles of reproduction and development. Integration and control; nervous systems, the senses. Ecology- the biosphere, population dynamics, communities and ecosystems; behavioural adaptations to the environment.

CHEM 158    General Chemistry II    (2, 3, 3)
 Types of systems, state variables and equations of state. First law of thermodynamics, heat capacity, enthalpy and thermochemistry. Elementary chemical kinetics, basic laws, effect of temperature and the Arhenius equation. Description of chemical equilibria, equilibrium constant calculations, predicting direction of equilibria, homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Response of equilibria to conditions: pressure, temperature, temperature and added reagents. Second and third laws of thermodynamics. Entropy and free energy of chemical reactions. Heat energies, Carnot cycle. Acids, bases and salts: Definitions of strong and weak acids and bases. pH, hydrolysis of salts, titration curves, solubility equilibria, ksp.

GE 184    Principles of Land Surveying    (2, 3, 3)
Chain surveying, spirit levelling. Longitudinal and cross sections. Contouring, Compass traversing. Simple plane co-ordinate calculations. Simple area and volume calculations. Measurement of theodilite horizontal and vertical angles, setting out building, gradients, slope stakes and ordinary circular curves. Errors. The calibration and permanent adjustment of equipment are excluded.  

CSM 184    Introduction to Computers II    (2, 3, 3)
Introduction to Microsoft Excel; creating a worksheet, entering data in cells, editing, saving, creating a workbook, formatting a worksheet, working with list, printing a worksheet. Introduction to Microsoft Access; introduction to database, creating database files, creating tables, creating forms, adding titles and graphs to forms, creating queries, creating reports, defining relationships in Access database, viewing existing relationships between tables.

MATH 156    Mathematics for Chemists    (3, 0, 3)
Functions, Limits of functions and continuity.  Differentiation:- first and second derivatives of algebraic and trigonometric functions.  Composite and implicit differentiation.  Exponential and logarithmic functions.  Maxima and Minima, rate of change.  Integration and the definite integral, application to areas and volumes; approximate integration, integration of simple continuous and rational functions, methods of substitution, partial fractions and integration by parts.  Reduction formula.  Vector functions of a single scalar variable.  Use of simple transformations to sketch a curve from parent curve.  Odd, Even and Periodic functions.  Ordinary differential equations of first order.  Separable, homogenous, linear, exact, integrating factors.  Linear differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients.  Systems of first order equations.  Reduction of nth order equation to a system of first order equations.  Solution in series.

ENGL 158    Communication Skills II    (2, 0, 2)
The communication process, skills in communication and communication in organisations. Preparing efficient documents, the dynamics of oral communication, written communication; letters and employment correspondence. Writing of technical reports, proposals, memos and writing dissertations and long essays.

FC 182    French for Communication Purposes II    (2, 0, 2)
L’aspect grammatical: L’article partifif; la conjugaison; pronominalisation, l’expression figée avec le verbe avoir et etre. Degree de l’adjectif; l’expression de la duée, l’expression interrogative avec les adverbs suivants. L’aspect communicative: Au restaurant, invitation, le voyage, remplir une fiche, chercher un appartement, correspondence. Civilisation; la culture francaise.

Year TWO Semester ONE

BIOL 251    Basic Microbiology    (2, 3, 3)
Introduction to the science of microbiology; Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic microorganisms. Introduction to bacteriophage and the nature of viruses. Structure of microorganisms. Nutrient and growth requirements. Physiology and kinetics of growth. Isolation and characterization of bacteria. Classification of bacteria types based on Gram staining reactions; carbon and energy, oxygen, temperature, sporulation etc. Preservation methods for short, medium and long term purposes. 

ENVS 251    Geochemistry    (2, 0, 2)
Outline of major geological processes and geochemical cycles and consequences for the geochemical cycles of elements. Mineral resources, availability, non renewability, substitution, geochemical prospecting. The nature of aquatic systems and the nature and characterization of substances present in natural waters. Chemical equilibrium. Chemical weathering and clay minerals, Redox processes. Sorption phenomena and colloids. Acid rain as a case study. 

ENVS 253    Agro Ecology        (2, 0, 2)
Comparison of traditional versus mechanized agriculture, and ways to achieve ecological sustainability and reduced environmental impacts. Topics include crop species diversity, genetic diversity, organic versus synthetic fertilizers, companion planting, agroforestry, and integrated insect, pathogen and weed management.

ENVS 255    Chemical & Biological Oceanography    (2, 0, 2)
Elemental composition of seawater. Conservative and non conservative behaviour. Salinity, its measurement and applications. Steady vs non steady state of ocean composition. Mean oceanic residence times; the thermocline and the 2 box model of ocean chemistry, thermohaline circulation. Estuaries. Evaporites. Primary productivity and the "great particle conspiracy" The biolimiting elements: P, N and Si. Biological cycling of other elements. CaC03 biogeochemistry. Dissolved oxygen and anoxia. Scavenged elements. Palaeo oceanographic studies. Distribution of planktons and nutrients: taxonomic, environmental and size specific groups of plankton, diversity and spatial distribution. The primary formation of particulate materials; autotrophic and heterotrophic processes. Plankton feeding and production. Some practical processes in biological oceanography.

ENVS 257    Forest Biome & Vegetation  Analysis     (2, 0, 2)
Forests dynamics, primary and secondary forest succession, factors that influence forest community structure and species diversity, effects of forest fragmentation. Theory and case studies on the sustainable management of forest resources, forest conservation and forest restoration ecology. 

ENGL 263    Literature in English I         (1, 0, 1)
Literature as poetry: What is a poem, and its characteristics? Differences between a poem and a song. The figure of speech and the literary device. Practical Appreciation. Texts to be studied: selected African and English poems. Literature as Drama: What is a play, and its characteristics? Drama as Theatre. Shakespeare. The Modern Play. Texts to be studied: One Shakespeare play and one Modern African Play.
ENVS 259   Systems Thinking and Stakeholder Analyses (3, 0, 3)
Introduction to systems and systems thinking. Livelihood and Stakeholder analyses: importance, identification, key concepts, approaches and tools as they relate to agriculture, natural resources and the environment.

LE 261    Fundamentals of Planning I        (3, 0, 3)
The basis of planning in society. Basic tools to analyse planning decisions and their implications for society. The meaning and nature of planning and evolution of planning systems. The scope, and types of Planning   Economic, Social, Integrated, Physical. Development Planning   types and historical development. Role of institutions in development planning; Indicators of 
Development. Levels of planning   national, district, local; The Planning Process   planning surveys and data rationalization. Town planning and its relationship with Land Economy.

Year TWO Semester TWO

BIOL 252    Microbial Ecology    (2, 3, 3)
Introduction to the natural environments of microorganisms. Microorganisms of extreme environments. Biofilms. Strategies for survival: role of stationary phase, spore formation and entry into the viable but non-culturable stage. Dispersal of microorganisms and development of microbial populations. Interactions involving microorganisms: microbe-microbe, microbe-plant, microbe-animal (symbiotic, saprophytic and pathogenic).

ENVS 252    Environmental Pollution    (2, 0, 2)
Pollution: origin and type of pollutants – polluters and micro pollutants (chemicals, thermal energy, radioactivity and noise). Transport, distribution and transformations of pollutants. Effects of pollutants: toxicity, bio-accumulation, eutrophication, bio-magnification, metal-microbial interactions. Examples of global problems with water, air and soil pollution such as acid rain, greenhouse effect and gases, destructiuon of rain forests, damage to the ozone layer. Legislation. Pollution control: prevention and curative measures.

GEOG 252    Introduction to Climatology  (2, 0, 2)
Selected processes in the atmosphere, of the world's major climates and the interaction between them and various life forms. Climatic elements and control factors affecting temperature, atmospheric pressure, precipitation processes; Composition of air, the structure of the atmosphere and its heat processes; formation of rainfall and drop; Tropical meteorology and the study of synoptic charts; Processes of soil formation; the soil profile; Soils of Ghana; Classification of plant communities; Energy flow in the ecosystem; the hydrological, nitrogen and carbon cycles and the role of climate in the biotic complex/ecosystem.

ENVS 254    Ecology of Inland Waters    (2, 3, 3)
Freshwater environment – physical, chemical and biological characteristics of lentic and lotic ecosystems. Measurements of physico-chemical factors of freshwater environment. Freshwater plants and animals; their distribution and adaptations. Plankton- classification and methods for estimating their biomass. Phytoplankton photosynthesis. Primary and secondary production. Nutrient cycling. Dynamics in lakes and rivers.

ENGL 264    Literature in English II    (1, 0, 1)
Continuation of ENGL 263. Literature as Narrative. Traditional (19th Century) Narrative. Contemporary Narrative. The African Novel. Texts to be studied: One African Novel and One English Novel.

ENVS 256    Introduction to Environmental Engineering    (2, 0, 2)
Introduction to the environment. Basic ecological concepts, pollution; Water Chemistry; Definitions of parameters of importance in water and wastewater analysis; Basic Microbiology; Bacteria and their role in diseases. Disease vectors; Water Treatment and Wastes Management Public Health and importance of Diseases from excreta. Causes. Transmission and control of Diseases from excreta. Classification of excreta disposal systems. Methods of handling 
human excreta using On site and Off site systems; Water Sources and quality considerations; Water demand estimation; Definitions of Average daily demand. Maximum Day Demand. Peak Hourly Demand. Factors affecting water demand Conventional method of treating surface water; Development of ground water source; Water Distribution network design and analysis.

AGEC254 Rural Sociology (2, 0, 2)
Fundamental concepts in Rural Sociology, rural society, rural organisation, rural people and culture, elements in the structure of culture, nature and importance of social institutions - with particular reference to the rural agricultural and environment system, and the sociological implications in extension work.

LE 262    Fundamentals of Planning II    (3, 0, 3)
General principles of location; Settlement planning   origin of towns; The preparation and interpretation of the Development Plan; Human settlement planning   principles underlying the preparation of Planning Schemes; The Neighbourhood Concept;  Planning and the Environment; History and development of planning in Ghana; Institutional structure of planning in Ghana;
The District Assembly as a planning body.

Year THREE Semester ONE

PHY 387    Introductory Geology    (2, 0, 2)
Igneous processes and igneous rocks; origin of rocks, magmas, crystallization of magmas. Intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Sedimentation and sedimentary rocks; classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Diagnosis and lithification. Metamorphisms and metamorphic rocks; types of metamorphic rocks, forces in metamorphism. Stratigraphic and Geologic time scale. Geology and mineral resources of Ghana. Minerals-general; economic minerals of Ghana and where they occur. 

GEOG 363    Introduction to Resource Analysis   (3, 0, 3)
Growing concern about natural resources development and the environment in the broad context of the ecology of resource processes. Analysis of socio-economic and environmental implications of natural resources use, the concept and classification of resources; Resource concerns/wealth/development; Population resource relationships; the resource processes and the environments; techniques of natural resource surveys; an overview of selected resource sectors; mineral and energy resources; food and agriculture resources; the conservation movement and strategies; overview of resources and development in Ghana; resource patterns and development; environment and the issue of sustainability of development; resources and environmental policy/strategy in Ghana.

ENVS 351    Solid Waste Management     (2, 0, 2)
Types of Solid Wastes - Organic, Inorganic, Plastic, Glass. Waste Management Options and their application to the different types of Solid Wastes (e.g. Source Reduction, Reuse, Recycling, Composting, Energy Recovery, Incineration and Land filling). Development, use and management of biodegradable polymers. Organic waste decomposition and its significance in composting. Regulations on waste management options. Land filling as a major form of solid waste management system in Ghana.

ENVS 353    Hydrology    (2, 0, 2)   
Introduction to hydrology, the hydrological cycle. Meteorological data; Evaporation and transpiration, Infiltration and percolation; Surface run off; Hydrograph analysis; Flood routing; Groundwater Hydrological forecasting.

ENVS 355    Environment & Health    (2, 0, 2)
The course is to equip the student with the tools for describing and predicting the aetiology, occurrence, transmission and effects of disease in space and time. Definition of health and disease; Epidemiology; principles and methods. Infectious diseases in developing countries: malaria, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis and HIV/AIDS. Survey of water-related diseases, distribution, classification and impact. Non-infectious and water-borne, water-washed, water-based infectious diseases, water related insect-vectors. Contamination of water resources and transmission of infections. Prevention and control measures, alternatives, costs efficiency. 

GEOG 357    Climatology & Biogeography I   (3, 0, 3)
Knowledge and functioning of the various climatic phenomenon and their effects on man and his activities; introduction to the characteristics and management of various biological resources with special reference to those in West Africa. Air masses, fronts and associated weather conditions; tropical disturbances; easterly Waves, tropical depressions, hurricane, thunderstorms, monsoon depressions; weather associated with synoptic systems: anticyclones, ridges, depressions, troughs, cols, etc. and climatic classification (generic, rational and generic Thornthwaite's and Koppens). 

MGT 471    Principles of Management I    (3, 0, 3)
The objective of this course is to equip students without basic knowledge in management, with the tools of decision-making, organization and management of decision-making, organization and management of firms and organization. It covers: Nature and scope of management; managerial functions, organizational theories; goals of business organization – economic and social responsibilities of management; decision-making techniques and influence; nature and types of organization and their implications for organizational administration.

LAW 363    Environmental Law I    (3, 0, 3)
Introduction Challenges to the environment- air, water, sound, the earth and the countryside. Nature, object and development of environmental law. Sources, general principles and concept ~ Environmental Law, e.g."Soft Law" approach Regulatory techniques"Substantial development"; Sovereignty by States versus responsibility not to cause damage to other states. Governance: States, International organisations and NGO's; the role of media in environmental control. Compliance, Breaches and Liability- a¬n overview of the Common Law rules or liability. Environmental Information and Impact Assessment- freedom of access to information in order to integrate national and international environmental considerations into socio-economic developments. The Atmosphere- transboundary air pollution; the "Trail Smeller" and Customary International Law; Ozone depletion and climatic change; international responses. 1985 Vienna Convention; 1987 Montreal Protocol and Subsequent adjustments in 1990 and 1992.

Year THREE Semester TWO

CHEM 368    Environmental Analysis I    (3, 0, 3)   
Generalities about sampling and sampling control. Water analysis – major constituents: sampling, measurement of water quality; suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and oxygen demand, total organic carbon, pH, acidity and alkalinity, water hardness, electrical conductivity. Analytical techniques for analysis of common ions: visible and ultraviolet spectrometry, emission spectrometry (flame photometry), ion-exchange chromatography, other techniques. Water analysis – trace pollutants: organic trace pollutants: sample storage, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, spectrometric methods. Metals ions: sample storage, pre-treatment, analytical methods: atomic spectrometry, visible spectrometry, ICP Anodic stripping voltametry. Techniques for metal speciation.

PL 356    Project Analysis and Evaluation   (3, 0, 3)
Introduction to project cycles and how each stage in the cycle is managed. Project identification, proposal writing, project analysis (technical, social, economic – cost/benefit analysis, environmental and institutional analysis) techniques for project implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

PHY    362    Environmental Physics    (2, 0, 2)
The Earth's Atmosphere ~The Homosphere and Heterosphere; The Temperature   Related Regions; The Chemisphere and Ionosphere; Composition of the Homosphere. The Polluted Atmosphere ~The Hydrocarbons; The oxides of Carbon; Gaseous compounds of Sulphur. Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollution ~ Wind; Atmospheric Diffusion; The Adiabatic Lapse Rate; Solar Radiation and Wind Circulation; Precipitation; Topographic influences. Estimation of Environmental Effects: Global levels of air pollution from industry; Effects of destruction of the "Ozone Shield"; The "Greenhouse Effect" and global warming; Renewable energy resources: biofuels. Radioactive Degradation of the Environment ~ Natural radioactivity of terrestrial origin; Radioactivity induced by cosmic rays; Mining, milling and fuel fabrication; Nuclear reactors and reactor accidents; Nuclear waste disposal.

GEOG 360    Climatology & Biogeography II    (3, 0, 3)
Atmospheric humidity and its measurements; global warming; ozone depletion and desertification; applied climatology; climate and agriculture, industry, engineering and recreation; climate of West Africa insects and insect-borne disease studies in relation to climatology; soil and vegetation and conservation and management of biological resources.

GE 262  Remote Sensing  (2, 3, 3)
Characteristics of remote sensing systems; electromagnetic spectrum; image characteristics-reflectance, absorption and radiation; spectral data and image forming systems; instrumentation; data acquisition.

LAW 364    Environmental Law II    (3, 0, 3)
Marine Environment: protection from pollution and need for observation of marine life; UNCLOS as a global regulatory instrument. Convention on Straddling and Migratory Fisheries Stocks. Biodiversity Conservation: CITES, Paris and 1992 Biodiversity Conservation; Developing Countries- The Forest Principles; Desertification Convention. Regionalisation: Africa and the African Economic Community; The Bamako Convention and the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Lome IV; Sub-Sahara and the EC Model. The Ghanaian Environment: legal and institutional framework for the protection of the environment; the EPA and its impact; the National Development Planning Commission; The Forestry and Fisheries Commission. Trade, War, Human Rights and the Environment; Trade Liberisation; Competition and environmental protection. Population as a factor in environmental problems.

MGT 472    Principles of Management II    (3, 0, 3)
Organizational behaviour/human relations-interpersonal and group processes; the application of concepts, like leadership, motivation, communication, morale, to the management of people and organization, time management, analysis of causes of change, managing change, innovation, management control.

Year FOUR Semester ONE
CHEM 463    Environmental Analysis II        (3, 0, 3)

Analysis of solids: sampling, pre-treatment, extraction, analytical determination, analysis of biological samples (plants), analysis of solids, analysis of sediments/sewage sludge.  Atmospheric analysis (gases), determination of the time weighted concentrations: absorption trains, solids adsorbents, diffusion tubes. Determination of instantaneous concentration: direct-reading instruments, gas determination tubes, Gas chromatography, remote sensing. Atmospheric analysis (particulate): sampling methods, high volume samplers, personal samplers, cascade impactors, techniques for organics, sample dissolution techniques, metals, organic compounds. Direct analysis of solids: X-ray emission, neutron activation, IR spectrometric methods for asbestos analysis.

ENVS 451    Environmental Management I    (2, 0, 2)
General overview of the environment, the global environmental debate, ecosystem management, environmental ethics, environmental risk management, environmental education, ecotourism, environmental policy and development and the threat of global warming.

ENVS 453     Water & Wastewater Treatment    (2, 0, 2)
Biological unit processes; Aerobic processes, Anaerobic processes, Activated sludge, treatment p1ant, Trickling filter; Chemical unit processes; Water softening, Disinfection, Gas transfer, and Coagulation; Physical unit operations; Screening, Mixing, Flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration, Industrial waste management; Reactor kinetics. 

ENVS 457    Environmental Toxicology    (2, 0, 2)
Naturally Occurring Organic Matter: The nature and properties of naturally occurring organic matter   an introduction; Organic matter transformations in soils and sediments. Case studies of specific types of Organic matter: Humic, coal, petroleum; Organic Contaminants in the Environment; Introduction of the 'priority' organic pollutants   their properties, uses and release into the environment. The cycling and behaviour of organic chemicals in the environment   the influence of chemical properties. The concepts of organic chemical partitioning and mobility in the environment; Modelling organic behaviour in the environment   the fugacity approach. Analytical organic environmental chemistry. Case Studies on Organochlorines in the environment:   their movement through aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems   their ecotoxicology

BCHEM 485      Experimental Design & Statistical Computing    (2, 3, 3)
Estimation and hypothesis testing: chi square tests, regression and correlation analysis, non parametric influence. Introduction to designing of experiments. Experiments involving paired data. Analysis of variance. Special designs. Complete randomized design. Randomized block design. Latin squares and paired orthogonal Latin squares. Incomplete block design. Factorial experiments including confounding and fractional replication. Analysis of covariance. 
Statistical packages for the various stages of the analysis of experiments in Biosciences. Data management and handling techniques. Application software (Excel, Access, SPSS)

ECON 463    Environmental & Resource Economics I    (3, 0, 3)
Appreciation of the relationship between the environment and sustainable development. Nature, scope and basic concepts of environmental economics: environment and efficiency in private market economy; externality problems and alternative solutions; environmental quality as a public good. Environmental policy: special emphasis on quality of life (water resource and quality, air quality, and noise); conservation and preservation principles; the environmental movement.

Year FOUR Semester TWO

BIOL 452    Biodiversity Conservation & Utilization    (2, 3, 3)
Definitions and current status. Biodiversity and a gene pool. Preservation value of biodiversity. Human dependence on biodiversity. Domesticated biota: indigenous and exotic. Introduction to some basic concepts of biological diversity, how it is organised in the natural world what threatens it, and what the costs and benefits of sustaining ecosystems might be. Renewable and non-renewable resources of the earth; conservation and development aims. Human activities and loss of biodiversity with special reference to tropical ecosystems and Ghana’s communities. Conservation principles and strategies; case studies of the environmental and social consequences of economic development and conservation in tropical climate. Tourism. Principles and techniques of beekeeping, mushroom and snail rearing.

ENVS 452    Environmental Management II    (2, 0, 2)
Focus on human impacts on the environment, urban environmental problems, the principles and tools of environmental management, environmental management system (EMS), and forest management in Ghana and formulating and implementing environmental programmes.

ENVS 454    Wildlife Resources & Conservation   (2, 2, 3)
Ecological principles applied to wildlife, ecological niches; wildlife interactions within and between species.  Adaptations of wildlife; examples of adaptations; the theory of natural selection; wildlife population structure; rate of increase; fecundity rate; mortality rate and patterns of population growth.  Dispersal; dispersion and distribution.  Methods of studying wildlife characteristics.  Animal census – estimates, total counts, sample counts.  Predation – definition, effect of predation on prey density.  Behaviour of predators.  Numerical response of prey density.  Natural history of common wildlife species of West Africa; wildlife value.  Wildlife and agricultural interactions – encroachment and habitat fragmentation, crop damage, use of agro-chemicals.  Wildlife control.

ENVS 455/456    Research Project I & II    (0, 24, 6)
A project will be captured in a thesis that will be a detailed written report on a research carried out independently by individual students over a period of two semesters. Project titles are selected with reference to the research interest and capabilities of staff. Main objectives – use of literature, learning of research techniques, an appreciation of the nature of biological problems and their solution, - devising appropriate experiments and/or planning sets of interventions, requiring careful observation, data collection, analysis, discussion and drawing of appropriate conclusions. Projects should preferably be professionally relevant and demand-driven to enhance individual employment prospects.

CS 452    Environmental Soil Science    (1, 2, 2)
Deals with soil systems and their environments from the perspective of soil development and classification. Field water cycle and groundwater pollution. Major topics include: Pedogenic processes influencing soil genesis and characteristics; Soils of Ghana; Soil survey; Mapping and classification; Land evaluation; Field water cycle; Redistribution of water in soil; Evaporation from bare soil; Soil plant water relations; Water balance and energy balance in the field; Irrigation and water use efficiency; Groundwater drainage and pollution.

ENVS 458    Entrepreneurship Development    (2, 0, 2)
Entrepreneurship and free enterprise; Business planning; Product and service concepts for new ventures, Marketing and new venture development , Organising, and financing new ventures; Current trend (Internet commerce, e commerce); Business Law/Law of Contract.

ECON 464    Environmental & Resource Economics II    (3, 0, 3)
Topics covered in the second semester include the following: Means of collective environmental action (regulation and prohibition, taxes, subsidies and effluent charges); environmental protection and limits to growth (population, economic growth and environmental quality), population level, environmental quality: urbanisation and environmental implications; environmental problems of Ghana (forest depletion and degradation, erosion, desertification, mining pollution, water management problems); International concerns on environmental issues: global pollution and cost sharing, trade in toxic waste and the assimilative capacity of the environment.